Dialysis,Types & Risks for patients with chronic renal failure

Dr. Rehab Jassim Muhammad
Eirteham Saeed Raheem
Department of chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Karbala, Iraq

The kidney is the most important excretory organ in the body, as It passes approximately (1500) mm of blood per day, during which approximately (1.5) liters of urine is filtered and excreted per day. Patients with chronic renal failure, due to the inability of their kidneys to perform their functions, the patient resorts to the use of renal purification, which known as hemodialysis.
Dialysis is the only way through which patients with end-stage renal failure can be saved. It can be used as a long-term treatment or as a temporary measure until the patient can receive a kidney transplant. Dialysis helps to achieve a balance between important minerals in the blood, such as potassium, sodium, calcium, and others [1].
Dialysis is defined as a medical procedure used to get rid of waste, toxic substances and excess fluids when the kidneys lose about (85-90%) of their functions and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than (15 ml / min) In addition to the appearance of a group of symptoms on the patient, including vomiting, feeling of fatigue, swelling and others [2].
There are two types of hemodialysis:-
Hemodialysis, which is one of the most used procedures, is resorted to when the kidneys lose their ability to function completely. This procedure helps to balance the levels of important minerals in the blood, in addition to that, it also helps in controlling blood pressure [3.4].
The second type is peritoneal dialysis, and it occurs specifically in the peritoneal membrane that lines the abdomen [5.6].
Dialysis treatment is effective in compensating most of the kidney functions, as It prolongs the life of many people, but it causes a variety of risks and health problems, including (high or low potassium levels, bone diseases, inflammation and infection from the dialysis area, anemia, irregular pressure, retention fluids), and sometimes some Patients feel itchy
skin [7.8].
One of the dangers of dialysis is also inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, as studies have shown that (50%) of patients who undergo dialysis are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases due to the increased effort exerted by the heart and the lack of blood and oxygen going to It, thus increasing the density of the heart muscles and reaching them. The stage of an enlarged heart and loss of its ability to pump blood normally eventually causes heart failure and possibly death [9].
1. National lnstitute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NlDDK),(March2014):He-modialysis.
2. Browne, T., McPherson, L., Retzloff, S., Darius, A., Wilk, A. S., Cruz, A., Wright, S., Pastan, S. O., Gander, J. C., Berlin, A. A., & Patzer, R. E. (2021). Improving Access to Kidney Transplantation: Perspectives From Dialysis and Transplant Staff in the Southeastern United States. Kidney Medicine, 3(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2021.04.017
3. Georg Haas (1886–1971): The Forgotten Hemodialysis Pioneer (PDF) Archived( December 17, 2008) at the Wayback Machine.
4. Kolff, WJ, and Berk, HTJ Artificial kidney, dialyzer with great area . Genesis. gids., 21:1944. Archived( May 07, 2008 ) on the Wayback Machine website
5. Zavacký, P. (2021). Peritoneal dialysis. In Surgeon’s Perspective on Dialysis Patient. https://doi.org/10.1177/089686089701703s01
6. Shellum, J. L., Nishimura, R. A., Milliner, D. S., Harper, C. M., & Noseworthy, J. H. (2017). Knowledge management in the era of digital medicine: A programmatic approach to optimize patient care in an academic medical center. Learning Health Systems, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/lrh2.10022
7. Hemodialysis. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/renal_replacement_therapy/hemodialysis.html. Accessed (April 25, 2021).
8. National Health Service. Dialysis. Retrieved on the 28h of August, 2021,from:https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/dialysis/
9. Gupta, R. D. Rahmam, M. Ahasan, H.N. Alam, B. Miah,T. Kabir,A. Das,A.(2010).Non – Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in chronic kidney Disease (CKD) and Haemodialysis Dependeut patients-A case control study.J Medicine 11:108-114.