Preservatives And Additives To Foodstuffs When Manufactured

Asst. Nada Habeeb Obaid
Maha Jassim
Department of chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences.

The widespread prevalence of microbes in the environment and the resulting chemical and enzymatic reactions that lead to corruption and food decomposition as a result of changes in the appearance, strength, color and nutritional value of the product in addition to some microbes secreted Toxic toxins in food that cause dangerous human conditions, so the growth and activity of microbes harmful to human health in food must be avoided . A person has long tried to preserve his food and prevent the activity of microbes with it through natural means to prevent the growth and activity of microbes, including the use of high temperatures such as cooking, sterilization، Blazer (or low temperatures) cooling ، Freezing) or the use of radiation or de-watering (drying or fumigation) while chemical means of preservation use of desirable microbes in the fermentation process or direct addition of chemicals that prevent the growth of microbes such as ( Salts, antioxidants, meat treatment materials, phosphate salts) . There is a misconception among some people that the food additives are chemicals that have a detrimental effect on human health and are added to the foodstuffs for the purpose of commercial marketing as alcohol, vinegar، spices previously used to prolong food preservation are considered food preservatives . (12,) For if preservatives that are not consumed by themselves are used as food and are not considered an essential component of food, regardless of their nutritional value, adding them to the product has high technological benefits in manufacturing, preparation and packaging, storage and transportation, as well as in sensory properties that include appearance, taste, smell, and strength. These benefits lead to an improvement in the properties of the added product, but there are many benefits due to the use of materials added to food The most important thing is that food has become safer as a result of the use of some additives that discourage the growth of bacteria and the chemical changes that may occur to food, which greatly reduce the risk of some food toxins (3). Likewise, the use of anti-oxidant additives increased the nutritional value, because not adding them leads to exposure of basic unsaturated fatty acids and some vitamins to oxidation during manufacture and storage, which causes a decrease in the value Food for some food .The use of some additives makes it easy to prolong the duration of food preservation, which helps to develop many food products . Food preservation is divided into two parts: Chemical preservation; As adding salt and vinegar in preparing pickles, the other section is physical preservation; Like freezing The main driver for food preservation is to ensure that food is consumed for a longer period of time; This is to reduce food waste, and it is worth noting that preservatives slow the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and mold-causing foods This leads to maintaining the quality of food, and also helps to control pollution that may cause foodborne diseases; Which may be fatal. (4,5)

Characteristics Of Substances That Inhibit The Growth And Activity Of Microbes In Food (6)
Be Highly Efficient In Discouraging The Growth And Activity Of Microbes.
Achieve The Required Purpose.
Safe, Non-Toxic Or Carcinogenic .
Does Not Cause Any Change In The Properties Or Quality Of The Product .
The Quantity Used For The Material Does Not Exceed Safety Limits .
Is Not Affected By The Manufacturing Conditions To Which The Food Is Exposed .
Be Inexpensive And Economical To Use .
The Chemicals Used To Discourage The Growth And Activity Of Microbes Are The Following Compounds(6,7)
Lipophilic Acids Such As (Sorbic, Benzoyk, Propionic(
Ester Like (Ester Para-Hydroxybenzoic Acid (.
Gases Like ( Sulfites , CO2 , Epoxidesozone ).
Microbial Products Such As (Antibiotics, Bacteriocene, Above Hydrogen Oxide).

References :-
Silva, Maria Manuela, and Fernando Lidon. “Food preservatives–An overview on applications and side effects.” Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture (2016): 366-373.‏

Carocho, Márcio, et al. “Adding molecules to food, pros and cons: A review on synthetic and natural food additives.” Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 13.4 (2014): 377-399.‏

Carocho, Márcio, Patricia Morales, and Isabel CFR Ferreira. “Antioxidants: Reviewing the chemistry, food applications, legislation and role as preservatives.” Trends in Food Science & Technology 71 (2018): 107-120.‏

Sahu, Fakir Mohan. “Food Additives: making food taste better and safer.” Beverages and (2016).‏

Abdulmumeen, H. A., Risikat, A. N. and Sururah, A. G. (2012). Food: Its Preservatives, additives and Applications. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences, 1: 39-47

Lindon, F., and M. M. A. S. F. Silvestre. “Indústrias Alimentares: aditivos e tecnologia.” Lisboa: Escolar Editora (2007).‏

Deshpande, A. L. P. A. N. A., and B. H. A. G. Y. A. S. H. R. E. E. Deshpande. “Food additives and preservation: A review.” Indian Journal of Sciences and Research 13 (2017): 219-225.‏