Recycling Organic waste and its contribution to achieving sustainability

Hamida Idan Salman & Hawraa Salman Kadhim Proph. Dr.

Organic waste: Composting can be done in two different ways, aerobic and anaerobic (1). Within 96 hours, DHAF may transform food waste into mature organic fertilizer. Microorganisms might reproduce in the ideal environment because of constant impact and friction. Due to constant friction and impact, which are typical in TSC process, anaerobic area in DHAF process is restricted to the particle with size larger than 2 mm (2). As an activator to hasten the breakdown of these wastes, a solution or bacterial culture (bacterial initiator) may be applied. It does this by increasing the amount of humus in the soil, which nourishes it with live creatures when it is applied, fixing atmospheric nitrogen, dissolving phosphate and potassium, Therefore, it is gentle on plants, which routinely absorb it and grow quickly. Organic or bio-compost is the end result of a process in which aerobic decomposition by microorganisms is regulated and directed to produce the desired product by continuous aeration using hand hoes or a stirring machine attached to a plow. Optimal conditions are also created for the microorganisms added to the composted materials through bacterial stimulant solution or mature organic fertilizer during the demolition and decomposition of organic matter building materials (3).
The effects of organic waste recycling on the environment It is economical use and trash disposal that is safe and healthy (4).
Organic wastes are a rich source of organic matter and helpful plant nutrients (macro and micro), and agricultural recycling of organic wastes might be investigated as an environmentally friendly and sustainable waste management technique. Physico-chemical and biological qualities of soil are improved by organic waste supplements, which also increase plant production. Organic wastes have the potential to be a valuable resource(5), preventing soil’s structural composition from deteriorating and becoming polluted as a result of the creation of landfills for garbage, preventing the release of harmful gases into the air as a result of the burning and burial of garbage, disposal of pesticide and fungicide residues in a safe and hygienic manner, preventing pollution of groundwater reservoirs (6), As these fungi are known for their high protein and meat content, amino acids, vitamins, and mineral salts, growing fungal spores of specialized types of fungi on an environment of waste agricultural crops under suitable growth conditions to produce the fruiting bodies of mushroom fungi as food for humans, and the growth environment is used after picking the fruits as a medium for the production of non-traditional fodder or its entry into the cycle of organic fertile. Plants are used in handcrafted industries, economic, social, and environmental assessment, as it is an evaluation of the economic return and return the social and environmental dimension of the biological systems of recycling agricultural by-products in terms of linking the inputs and outputs of the used technologies to each other in a technically integrated system. This assessment has a clear impact on farmers’ acceptance of these systems and the issue of dumping sewage into rivers was also eliminated as a result of the application of organic agricultural methods, the application of clean application areas, the provision of alternate sources of mature petroleum energy, and the development of renewable sources of fodder and food (7).

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